Covenants, Adam, Modernity, and Context Pt 1 (HC 15)

15. What kind of a mediator and redeemer then must we seek? One who is a true1 and righteous man, 2 and yet more powerful than all creatures, that is, One who is also true God.3 11 Cor 15:21, 22, 25, 26. . . . Continue reading →

Office Hours: Fesko on the Fruit of the Spirit, Isaiah, and Practical Arminianism

In this episode Office Hours talks with Dr John Fesko, Academic Dean and Associate Professor of Systematic Theology at WSC and author of The Fruit of the Spirit Is about the nature of the Christian life and especially about whether sanctification (growth . . . Continue reading →

Calvin On A Mistaken Confidence In Works

We, too, when treating of the righteousness of faith, do not contend against the substance of works, but against that quality with which the sophists invest them,1 inasmuch as they contend that men are justified by them. Paul, therefore, divested himself—not of . . . Continue reading →

Works And Grace In The Judgment

What this all means is that justification is God’s final judgment. As Wilfried Joest writes, “there is no second decision after justification.” In the language of the Reformation, the “sole and sufficient basis” for our justification before God’s eschatological tribunal is Jesus . . . Continue reading →

What Is True Faith? (10) A Glorious Omission

In part 9 we considered the role of the gospel in the Spirit’s work of creating new life and granting faith. We saw that there is no tension between the direct, supernatural working of the Spirit and his use of means in . . . Continue reading →

Heidelcast 64: Nomism And Antinomianism (7)


The nomist wants to know whether the works he did before coming to faith are of any value. He asks, “why then, sir, it would seem that all my seeking to please God by my good works, all my strict walking according . . . Continue reading →

Berkhof On The Standard Of Final Judgment

The standard by which saints and sinners are judged will evidently be the revealed will of God. This is not the same for all. Some have been privileged above others, and this naturally adds to their responsibility, Matt 11:21–24; Rom. 2:12–16. This . . . Continue reading →

The Shield Of Works? Faith, Spiritual Warfare, And Salvation

The preacher this morning read from Ephesians 6 and Paul’s expression in 6:16 struck me relative to the current discussion about works and salvation. There is no question whether believers will do good works or whether those good works are evidence of . . . Continue reading →

Luther On The Covenant Of Works

Before Adam’s fall it was not necessary for him to have Christ, because he was righteous and without sin, just as the angels have no need of Christ. If Adam had not fallen, it would not have been necessary for Christ to . . . Continue reading →

Heidelberg 62: Works No Part Of Our Justification

Because the popular rhetoric in evangelical and even in confessional Protestant circles has frequently been that the medieval (or the Roman communion) taught justification by works and the Reformers taught justification by grace well-meaning but misguided Christians sometimes conclude that so long . . . Continue reading →