New Resource Page: On Amyraut, Amyraldianism, and Hypothetical Universalism

One of the more important debates that rocked the French Reformed Church in the 17th century was that concerning the doctrine of Moises Amyraut (1596–1664). He was part of a broader movement to revise Reformed theology among the French in a variety of ways. His doctrine was challenged repeatedly within the church but, unlike the followers of Arminius, he was never convicted in the French church of error. His views have persisted, sometimes in the background, ever since. That said, his views and those of his associates, did face stiff opposition from some formidable and influential figures in the Reformed world including John Owen (1616–83), Francis Turretin (1623–87), and J. H. Heidegger (1633–98). The doctrine of hypothetical universalism was rejected formally by the Swiss Reformed Churches in 1675 in the Helvetic Consensus Formula until a more broadly evangelical movement, led by Turretin’s son, Jean-Alphonse, overturned it in the 18th century. The Amyraldian revisions were also rejected at Old Princeton (e.g., Charles Hodge and B. B. Warfield) and by the confessional Reformed seminaries in the 20th century. Today, in most confessional Presbyterian and Reformed Churches (e.g., NAPARC), it would be difficult for a candidate for ministry, who held Amyraldian views, to be ordained to the ministry. Still, there is a regular drumbeat by proponents of Amyraldianism (e.g., A. C. Clifford) to accept Amyraldianism as orthodox. Thus, the issue is always before us in one way or another.

Resources On Amyraut, Amyraldianism, And Hypothetical Universalism






    Post authored by:

  • R. Scott Clark
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    R.Scott Clark is the President of the Heidelberg Reformation Association, the author and editor of, and contributor to several books and the author of many articles. He has taught church history and historical theology since 1997 at Westminster Seminary California. He has also taught at Wheaton College, Reformed Theological Seminary, and Concordia University. He has hosted the Heidelblog since 2007.

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