What Must A Christian Believe?

SubstanceThe questions often arise, “what must a Christian believe to be saved”? or “what are the essentials?” Most often the broad evangelical answer is “not much.” The tendency is toward minimalism in doctrine (belief) and practice. In some circles it is enough to say that one came forward at a rally, prayed a prayer, and signed a card (or clicked yes on a website). The Reformed Churches, however, confess a different answer to that question  in Heidelberg Catechism Q/A 22:

22. What then is necessary for a Christian to believe?

All that is promised us in the Gospel, which the articles of our catholic, undoubted Christian faith teach us in sum.

The catechism begins with the Gospel, the Good News about Jesus the Messiah, which is shorthand for his incarnation, death, resurrection, and ascension for us sinners but there is more. The Gospel as we understand it is summarized not just in those events but in “the articles of our catholic, undoubted Christian faith” teach us. The articles to which this answer refers are the 12 articles of the Apostles’ Creed, which are in three sections, organized by the Holy Trinity:


  • I believe in God the Father, almighty, maker of heaven and earth


  • And in Jesus Christ, his only begotten Son, our Lord
  • Who was conceived by the Holy Spirit , Born of the virgin Mary
  • Suffered under Pontius Pilate, crucified, dead and buried; He descended into hell
  • The third day He rose from the dead
  • He ascended into heaven, and sits at the right hand of God the Father almighty
  • Thence He shall come to judge the living and the dead

Holy Spirit

  • I believe in the Holy Spirit
  • The Holy Catholic Church, The communion of saints
  • The forgiveness of sins
  • The resurrection of the body
  • And the life everlasting.

According to the Reformed understanding all 12 articles are under the heading “gospel.” This doesn’t mean that there isn’t a narrow sense of gospel (as sketched above) but it does mean that when we answer the question of what must be believed we do not stop at the narrow sense of gospel. We include in it the doctrine of the Trinity, a doctrine of God, a doctrine of creation and providence, of sin, of Christ, of salvation, of the church, sacraments, and last things.

Modern evangelical answers to this question have focused on Christ to the exclusion of these other doctrines but in Reformed theology they’re all connected. Our doctrine of God is intimately connected to our understanding of man, salvation, church, and worship. The Reformed faith, however, is biblical and catholic, i.e., we believe what the Scriptures teach about God, man, Christ, salvation etc as understood by the church in all times and places.

In contrast, for evangelicals, so long as one affirms a personal relationship with the risen Christ, everything else is negotiable. It is not always certain, even, what an evangelical means by “Christ.” Is she referring to the Christ of Scripture and history, confessed in the Creed, or to the Christ of subjective, mystical experience?

The Reformed answer to the question: “what must a Christian believe?” is not minimalist but neither is it maximalist. We don’t ask Christians to believe everything possible. We ask them to believe all that is necessary. There are limits to what may be set as a condition of salvation. There is a hierarchy of beliefs. They aren’t all equally ultimate or necessary. There are fundamentalist groups that require adherents to believe that the King James Version of the English Bible is the only acceptable translation but that’s not a necessary belief. The King James Version is a wonderful piece of work but it’s just one translation among many. The Geneva Bible pre-existed the KJV and the Tyndale pre-existed the Geneva Bible and we’ve had many fine translation since 1611. Others would set the length of creation days as a necessary belief. One is certainly entitled to one’s opinion about the meaning of the “day” in Genesis 1 and 2 but historically, the emphasis has been on the reality of the creation days and upon the truth that we are created and not the Creator.

The Reformed Churches are Trinitarian. This puts us at odds not only with Jews, and Muslims, who reject the Trinity, but also with those evangelicals who seek some détente with Mormonism, which denies the catholic (universal) Christian doctrine of the Trinity.

We believe in divine providence, that God the same God who spoke creation into existence by the power of his Word is actively upholding and governing all things. We reject Deism. We reject pantheism (everything is God). We reject panentheism (everything is in God). God is. He isn’t becoming. Whatever comes to pass does so only because and under the control of God’s good providence.

We believe the catholic doctrine of the two natures of Christ as summarized in the Nicene-Constantinopolitan Creed (381), in the Definition of Chalcedon (451), and the Athanasian Creed (7th century). He is true God and true man. He remains one person with two distinct, united, inseparable, unconfused natures. What is true of is natures is true of his person but the distinct properties of each nature are unchanged.

We are not Gnostics. We believe that God created humanity good, righteous, and holy; able to fulfill his law and enter into eternal blessedness through obedience to that law (commandment of life, covenant of works). Our first parents, Adam and Eve, disobeyed and Adam, as the legal representative of all humanity, died spiritually. In Adam’s fall into sin, death, and guilt, all humans were implicated. We are all born in sin and death.

There is salvation by (a covenant of) grace alone, through faith alone, in Christ alone. Just as God, in the garden, offered to Adam, life on condition of obedience, so now he has promised life to his elect on the basis of the obedience of the Second and Last Adam, Jesus. His Spirit grants life to those for whom he obeyed, suffered, was crucified, died, was buried, and was raised and for whom he now intercedes. The Spirit gives the grace of faith to those to whom he has given life and through faith he grants us free acceptance with God, unites believers to the risen Christ, and adopts them as sons. We do believe heartily in a personal communion with the risen Christ but the Christ to whom we are united, with whom we commune, is the Christ of Scripture and history. He is not the figment of our imagination or the creature of our experience.

We are not saved alone nor to be alone. The Triune God administers his salvation in the visible church. Where the gospel is preached purely, the sacraments (baptism and the Lord’s Supper) administered purely, and where there is discipline, there is a true church. In those assemblies is where the Spirit is at work bringing the elect to faith and where believers are growing in sanctity as a consequence of God’s grace and fellowship with one another. Those visible covenant assemblies are mixed. In them are believers, those who are yet to believe, and those who profess faith but who do not believe. There has always been a universal church, composed in all times and places of believers, since the beginning of the world, and there shall always be this body, united by true faith, in the visible assembly.

In the visible church is where all believers are ordinarily found. Believers are those who’ve been given a knowledge of the faith, assent to the truth of the faith, and a hearty trust that the promises of the gospel are true not only for others but for themselves also. Believers are freely accepted by God (justified) through faith (knowledge, assent, and trust) alone, in Christ.

In that communion of saints God uses visible signs of his promises. To those who believe, these signs (sacraments) testify that what they signify is really true for the believer. Christians follow in the footsteps of Abraham and Moses by initiating their children into the visible covenant community in baptism and, upon profession of faith, communing with him at the Lord’s Table. These signs and seals are not magic but they do tell the truth and the Spirit does use them to strengthen our faith and to help us grow in Christlikeness.

Sin (violation of God’s holy law) corrupted creation and especially human nature and brought death but that is not the end of the story. Just as there is forgiveness of sins in Christ so too he has, by his bodily resurrection, begun to reverse the effects of the fall. His bodily resurrection is a promise that, when Christ returns, believers too will be raised from the dead. As we wait for the final day we do so with the confidence that Jesus ascended bodily, that he, in his true humanity, is at the right hand of our Father praying for us.

The new life that believers have, by grace alone is a down payment of the eternal life that is to come in the new heavens and new earth. We live our life, in union with Christ, in communion with the believers patiently waiting, serving him by fulfilling our earthly vocations, as citizens of his twofold kingdom (eternal and temporal).

The Christian faith has objective content that must be believed. That content, those propositions are more extensive than many might like to think but all that content must be appropriated personally by faith or it remains only theoretical. The Spirit works through the the proclamation of this gospel, he truths, to produce new life, true faith, and sanctity. Those to whom he has given new life he has also given a new identity shaped by the catholic, Christian faith. 

The biblical faith, the catholic faith, is an integral, coherent, whole. It isn’t a patchwork but neither is it an endless garment.

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  1. I have always taken this as what will a christian believe if they are saved, rather than the way it is phrased of “what must a Christian believe to be saved” so it is very much Beliefs -> Saved or better Salvation is a sufficient and necessary condition for Belief. I think many people get the source wrong today thinking that belief somehow effects salvation.

    I am in no way implying that HB, Dr Clark or the Heidelberg Catechism get it wrong, merely that in the semi-pelagian view most common today in evangelicals it is backwards.

  2. Ah yes. My third year of Latin classes ended in 1968, so I’m a bit rusty. My “classical” studies since 1973 have constituted Greek and Latin-based medical terms. And I had forgotten that “hell” is a neuter pleural!

  3. So, Dr. Clark, is assent to the contents of the apostles creed necessary for salvation or the Reformed interpretation/understanding of said content. To the point by the gentlemen above the RCC confesses the content of the AC but with a completely different understanding thereof.

    Also, is there a difference between “what one must believe to be saved” and “what one must believe to be maturing in one’s knowledge and love of the Triune God”? I ask because of those passages in the NT which indicate that salvation comes to those who “believe in the Lord Jesus Christ” (e.g. Acts 16) although, I suppose, those could simply be cases of synecdoche… I ask not because I disagree with what you have said I’m just interested in hearing how you would respond to such questions.

  4. I certainly love this blog entry particularly in light of the minimalist infection of broad evangelicalism which has worked so much trouble in the church. From having had a conversion experience, to an undefined belief in Jesus or that I invited Him into my heart, to an undefined I am a believer, to now ‘I am spiritual.’ — Another strong recommendation for what constitutes the sum of saving knowledge (and its use) would be that document which I have appended to my WCF. The fact that David Dickson who is so close in proximity to the Westminster Confession’s drafting is one of its principle authors, gives us insight not only to the meaning of that document, but also gives insight into the mind of its writers with regards to this subject. I would only mention that while one may certainly be Christ’s own and received into the membership of Christ’s visible church with differing views of the days of creation – yet such views other than that of days of normal duration (the universal view of the Westminster divines) – beg the question as to one’s view of the first three chapters of Genesis and method of interpretation as drawn from that text and elsewhere in Scripture. This is particularly important with regards to those who would take up the preaching and teaching office in the church.

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