Text Critical Notes on HC Q. 18

Thanks to Wes Bredenhof for these notes.


  1. Dear Dr. R.S. Clark

    In this week I’m here on study Master Program at Centro Presbiteriano Andrew Jumper. I know that you work much, and you are very occuped in its, but I need your help. I’m writing my dissertation with title: Prayer as Means of Grace: A comparative doctrinal between Continental and Britanic Reformed Divines. My teacher give me suggestion for it. I need that you show me books, articles, papers and reviews that speak about it. And, I need that you response me some questions:
    1. Why reformed churchs from Netherlands adopt only Word and Sacraments as Means of Grace?
    2. When, or what historical period the continental divinies limited it?
    3. What theological critics may be make about position’s Westminster divinies about Prayer as Means of Grace?
    4. If you desire suggestion some division, or estruture my dissertation, you is free for it. All critics that you maked is welcome!

    Do you would help me in my dissertation? Please, I hope your response come soon.

    Thankyou for your attention. I grateful for your help.

    In Christ,
    Pastor Ewerton B. Tokashiki, candidate S.T.M [Sacrae theologicae Magister]
    by Andrew Jumper Center Presbyterian
    Mackenzie Presbyterian University.

    • Pastor Tokashiki,
      What church are you affiliated with?
      Are you at school in São Paulo, Brazil?

    • Dear Pastor,

      I address your questions about the means of grace at some length in the book, Recovering the Reformed Confession.

      I don’t think I accept the premise of your question that there was a sharp difference of opinion between the continental and English Reformed theologians on these questions. The term “means of grace” was used in different ways at different times. I think the idea has to be investigated carefully and contextually.


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